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The principles behind gamification are not entirely new. The term originated in 2002, but did not gain popularity until 2010. Since then, gamification has become a major trend in many business domains to increase customer loyalty and employee engagement. In requirements engineering, academics and practitioners are also exploring new opportunities to boost stakeholder participation with the aid of game mechanics and game elements.
The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the effectiveness of gamification in requirements engineering in order to improve stakeholder engagement. We developed an online digital platform for scenario-based RE supported with gamification. Derived from an in-depth literature study, we selected user stories complemented with scenarios from behavior-driven development (BDD) as a method to express stakeholder requirements. Points, badges and leaderboards (PBL) are very common game elements in terms of gamification and are used as a starting point for the artifact design. In total, the platform consists of 17 different game mechanics and elements, which intension is to positively affect intrinsic and extrinsic stakeholder motivation.
Subsequently, the playful prototype is tested in a controlled experiment. A conceptual framework is constructed in order to measure the effect of gamification on user engagement and performance. The experimental findings expose that it is possible to change stakeholder’s behavior effectively with gamification. Stakeholders who are exposed to the gamified platform produce more user stories, in better quality and with more creative ideas. The majority of their identified requirements are categorized as attractive, which lead to higher customer satisfaction. However, no differences concerning emotions and cognition between the experimental conditions were identified.
This is the first research that makes a linkage between organizational behavioral management and gamification. Gamification is the use of game-elements in a non-gaming context (Deterding, 2011a). It is used in organizations in order to change the behavior of the workforce. However, Gartner (2012) claims that 80% of the gamified applications fail to meet their objectives because of bad design. As a result, the aim of this study was to comprehend how gamification can be applied in order to change behavior. With regard to this research question, a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with gamification experts is used in order to understand how gamification should be used. In addition, we have checked if they are applying organizational behavioral management in their gamification applications.
This thesis has the topic Gamification for supporting ITIL process management, for example change management. The targets and assumptions are defined in chapter 2. The motivation for this paper can also be found there.
Chapter 3 is dedicated to the definition of relevant terms and basics of Gamification and ITIL. The facet change management is particularly distinguished, as well as the motivational background why Gamification can work and does work.
The two used methods, an expert interview and prototyping, are explained and justified in chapter 4.
Nowadays firms are continuously in transition and through that, face new challenges. One of these challenges for established companies is keeping up with start-ups that are gaining ground. The innovation management of established companies recognize the importance of an entrepreneurial attitude and are looking into the opportunities of fostering this. One of these opportunities might be in the use of gamification. Gamification is rising in popularity, but through the newness of this concept long-term effects have not been clearly established. Also, despite a growing application of gamification, there is still limited academic foundation regarding the effects of gamification. Therefore, the aim of this study is to answer the following research question: How can innovation management use gamification in order to foster an entrepreneurial attitude?
This exploratory research started off with a literature study to develop a conceptual model. This conceptual model is shown in Figure 2 of the master thesis. The left side of this model shows internal gamification, the right side shows an entrepreneurial attitude. In this model internal gamification includes seven gamification drivers. Based on literature, a distinction is made between extrinsically and intrinsically based drivers. The four extrinsically based drivers are development and accomplishment, ownership and personalisation, scarcity and impatience, and avoiding loss (Wu, 2014; Chou, 2013; Molenaar, 2014a). These four drivers are expected to have mainly short-term effects. The three intrinsically based drivers are explore and surprise, social influence and relatedness, and giving meaning and higher goal (Wu, 2014; Chou, 2013; Molenaar, 2014a).